Governing the Church
The Great Ends of the Church
Why do we have a church? It may be that we don't ask that question enough. It's not that I question the existence of the institution, but it's worth remembering why we were called into existence. We believe the purposes or " great ends" of the Church are
- the proclamation of the gospel for the salvation of humankind;
- the shelter, nurture, and spiritual fellowship of the children of God;
- the maintenance of divine worship;
- the preservation of the truth;
- the promotion of social righteousness; and
- the exhibition of the Kingdom of Heaven to the world.
Form of Government, Book of Order , G-1.0200
Every congregation is wise to regularly consider all the actions it takes from worship through Sunday School classes to advertising and make sure those actions fit into the Great Ends of the Church.
Principles of Church Order
Another good question that does not get answered often enough is "How should a church be run? What principles should govern its actions and meetings?" It's one thing to be a bunch of good people doing good stuff together, but it is quite another to be a body which can disagree yet remain together because we share some things stronger than our disagreements. How do we determine what beliefs are so central that all members must agree to them and what beliefs are tangential?
This list of eight principles of church order was written in preparation for the first General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America in 1789. This list has been part of our Form of Government ever since. I've added the red bold face terms as a quick summary.
That "God alone is Lord of the conscience, and hath left it free from the doctrines and commandments of men which are in anything contrary to his Word, or beside it, in matters of faith or worship."
Therefore we consider the rights of private judgment, in all matters that respect religion, as universal and unalienable: We do not even wish to see any religious constitution aided by the civil power, further than may be necessary for protection and security, and at the same time, be equal and common to all others.
That, in perfect consistency with the above principle of common right, every Christian Church, or union or association of particular churches, is entitled to declare the terms of admission into its communion, and the qualifications of its ministers and members, as well as the whole system of its internal government which Christ hath appointed; that in the exercise of this right they may, notwithstanding, err, in making the terms of communion either too lax or too narrow; yet, even in this case, they do not infringe upon the liberty or the rights of others, but only make an improper use of their own.
That our blessed Savior, for the edification of the visible Church, which is his body, hath appointed officers, not only to preach the gospel and administer the Sacraments, but also to exercise discipline, for the preservation of both truth and duty; and that it is incumbent upon these officers, and upon the whole Church, in whose name they act, to censure or cast out the erroneous and scandalous, observing, in all cases, the rules contained in the Word of God.
That truth is in order to goodness; and the great touchstone of truth, its tendency to promote holiness, according to our Savior's rule, "By their fruits ye shall know them." And that no opinion can be either more pernicious or more absurd than that which brings truth and falsehood upon a level, and represents it as of no consequence what a man's opinions are. On the contrary, we are persuaded that there is an inseparable connection between faith and practice, truth and duty. Otherwise, it would be of no consequence either to discover truth or to embrace it.
That, while under the conviction of the above principle we think it necessary to make effectual provision that all who are admitted as teachers be sound in the faith, we also believe that there are truths and forms with respect to which men of good characters and principles may differ. And in all these we think it the duty both of private Christians and societies to exercise mutual forbearance toward each other.
That though the character, qualifications, and authority of Church officers are laid down in the Holy Scriptures, as well as the proper method of their investiture and institution, yet the election of the persons to the exercise of this authority, in any particular society, is in that society.
That all Church power, whether exercised by the body in general or in the way of representation by delegated authority, is only ministerial and declarative; that is to say, that the Holy Scriptures are the only rule of faith and manners; that no Church governing body ought to pretend to make laws to bind the conscience in virtue of their own authority; and that all their decisions should be founded upon the revealed will of God. Now though it will easily be admitted that all synods and councils may err, through the frailty inseparable from humanity, yet there is much greater danger from the usurped claim of making laws than from the right of judging upon laws already made, and common to all who profess the gospel, although this right, as necessity requires in the present state, be lodged with fallible men.
Lastly, that if the preceding scriptural and rational principles be steadfastly adhered to, the vigor and strictness of its discipline will contribute to the glory and happiness of any church. Since ecclesiastical discipline must be purely moral or spiritual in its object, and not attended with any civil effects, it can derive no force whatever but from its own justice, the approbation of an impartial public, and the countenance and blessing of the great Head of the Church universal.
Form of Government, Book of Order , G-1.0300
Principles of Church Government
In 1797, The General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America adopted the following basic principles of Church government.
The radical principles of Presbyterian church government and discipline are:
That the several different congregations of believers, taken collectively, constitute one Church of Christ, called emphatically the Church; that a larger part of the Church, or a representation of it, should govern a smaller, or determine matters of controversy which arise therein; that, in like manner, a representation of the whole should govern and determine in regard to every part, and to all the parts united: that is, that a majority shall govern; and consequently that appeals may be carried from lower to higher governing bodies, till they be finally decided by the collected wisdom and united voice of the whole Church. For these principles and this procedure, the example of the apostles and the practice of the primitive Church are considered as authority.
Form of Government, Book of Order , G-1.0400
In simpler words, the Presbyterian Church is a representative democracy which governs itself by representatives chosen from the local congregation. It consists of governing bodies which in turn include more bodies from lower to higher. These bodies are the session, the presbytery, the synod, and the general assembly.
The Session governs the local congregation. The Session is made up of several elders with the pastor serving as Moderator making sure that all voices are heard and that the meetings are run in a way that is fair to everyone. An elder is a male or female member of the congregation who has been chosen to lead the congregation in all of its activities from choosing a paint color for the church hallway to choosing a new pastor. Elders are the people who answer to God for running the local church. One of these elders is selected to be the Clerk of Session. The Clerk has the job of keeping the minutes and recording all that the Session does. A session determines how the congregation as a body will spend its resources and energy in doing the work of God in that location.
Session meetings like all Presbyterian governing body meetings are to be run according to Robert's Rules of Order. These rules were first established in 1869 by Henry Martyn Robert who when asked to preside over a church meeting was embarrassed to find he had no idea of how to proceed. Robert's rules stressed "that:
- the majority must rule,
- the minority must be heard,
- the rights of the individual must be guaranteed, and
- justice and courtesy must prevail;"
South Carolina General Assembly, 110th Session, 1993-1994, Bill 1281
Resolution to Honor Henry Martyn Robert
The current edition of Robert's Rules is under copyright, but an older (and for our purposes adequate) edition is available online here.
The Presbytery is comprised of every minister and at least one elder from each of the congregations in a given region. Our Presbytery is the Presbytery of Chicago. It includes 107 congregations and over 43,000 Presbyterians in Lake, Cook, and DuPage Counties in Illinois.
A presbytery determines how several congregations as a body will use their resources and energy in doing the work of God in that area. The presbytery is led by a moderator who is elected from one of the elder or minister members of the presbytery. The moderator is assisted by the presbytery staff which is led by the Stated Clerk of the presbytery. Most presbyteries are organized by regions however a few presbyteries are organized by language/cultural groups.
There are 173 presbyteries in the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.).
The Synod is made up of representative members of several presbyteries. Our Synod is the Synod of Lincoln Trails. It includes eight presbyteries and over 700 congregations in Indiana and Illinois. The presbyteries in the Synod of Lincoln Trails, are:
- Blackhawk Presbytery with offices in Oregon, Illinois
- Presbytery of Chicago with offices in Chicago, Illinois
- Great Rivers Presbytery with offices in Peoria, Illinois
- Midwest Hanmi Presbytery (Korean-American Presbytery) with offices in Chicago, Illinois
- Ohio Valley Presbytery with offices in Bloomington, Indiana
- Southeastern Illinois Presbytery with offices in Decatur, Illinois
- Wabash Valley Presbytery with offices in Rochester, Indiana
- Whitewater Valley Presbytery with offices in Indianapolis, Indiana
A synod determines how presbyteries as a body will use their resources and energy in doing the work of God in that region. In recent years they have specialized in providing educational opportunities to congregations and providing support persons as congregations reassess their ministries. There are sixteen synods.
Map source PCUSA Links to Synods
- Covenant (MI, OH)
- Lakes and Prairies (ND, SD, NE, MN, WI, IA)
- Lincoln Trails (IL, IN)
- Living Waters (KY, TN, MS, AL)
- Mid-America (KS, MO)
- Mid-Atlantic (MD, VA, NC, DE)
- Northeast (NY, NJ, New England)
- Pacific (OR, ID, CA, NV)
- Puerto Rico
- Rocky Mountains (MT, WY, UT, CO)
- South Atlantic (GA, SC, FL)
- Southern California and Hawaii
- Southwest (AZ, NM)
- Sun (TX, OK, AR, LA)
- Trinity (PA, WV)
The General Assembly
The General Assembly is made up of representatives from each Presbytery according to the number of members in the Presbytery. It is the most inclusive ruling body of our denomination the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), or PCUSA, is currently the largest Presbyterian denomination in the United States with about 11,200 congregations and 2.5 million members.
The General Assembly determines how all the PCUSA congregations in the United States will direct their resources and energy in doing the work of God in this country. It also provides guidance, at the request of lower governing bodies, in how we may organize ourselves, how we may reconcile disputes, and how we should support one another in difficult times. The General Assembly currently meets once every other year. It is led by a Moderator, an elder or a minister, man or woman, who is elected for a two-year term. The Moderator is assisted by the General Assembly staff.