II. The Ten Commandments
Question 89. What are the Ten Commandments?
The Ten Commandments give a summary of God's law for our lives. They teach us how to live rightly with God and one another.
Deut. 10:4 "Then he wrote on the tablets the same words as before, the ten commandments that the Lord had spoken to you on the mountain out of the fire on the day of the assembly; and the Lord gave them to me."
Matt. 19:17 "And he said to him, 'Why do you ask me about what is good? There is only one who is good. If you wish to enter into life, keep the commandments.'"
Question 90. Why did God give this law?
After rescuing the people of Israel from their slavery in Egypt, God led them to Mount Sinai, where they received the law through Moses. It was the great charter of liberty for Israel, a people chosen to live in covenant with God and to serve as a light to the nations. It remains the charter of liberty for all who would love, know and serve the Lord today.
Ex. 20:2 "I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery."
Deut. 11:1 "You shall love the Lord your God, therefore, and keep his charge, his decrees, his ordinances, and his commandments always."
Luke 1:74-75 "We, being rescued from the hands of our enemies, might serve him without fear, in holiness and righteousness before him all our days."
Question 91. Why should you obey this law?
Not to win God's love, for God already loves me. Not to earn my salvation, for Christ has earned it for me. Not to avoid being punished, for then I would obey out of fear. With gladness in my heart I should obey God's law out of gratitude, for God has blessed me by it and given it for my well-being.
Ps. 118:1 "O give thanks to the Lord, for he is good; his steadfast love endures forever!"
Col. 3:17 "And whatever you do, in word or deed, do everything in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him."
Question 92. What are the uses of God's law?
God's law has three uses. First, it shows me how grievously I fail to live according to God's will, driving me to pray for God's mercy. Second, it functions to restrain even the worst of sinners through the fear of punishment. Finally, it teaches me how to live a life which bears witness to the gospel, and spurs me on to do so.
Rom. 3:20 "For 'no human being will be justified in his sight' by deeds prescribed by the law, for through the law comes the knowledge of sin."
Rom. 7:7 "What then should we say? That the law is sin? By no means! Yet, if it had not been for the law, I would not have known sin. I would not have known what it is to covet if the law had not said, 'You shall not covet.'"
Prov. 6:23 "For the commandment is a lamp and the teaching a light, and the reproofs of discipline are the way of life."
Question 93. What is the first commandment?
"You shall have no other gods before me" (Ex. 20:3; Deut. 5:7).
Deut. 26:17 "Today you have obtained the Lord's agreement: to be your God; and for you to walk in his ways, to keep his statutes, his commandments, and his ordinances, and to obey him."
Matt. 4:10 "Jesus said to him, 'Away with you, Satan! for it is written, 'Worship the Lord your God, and serve only him.'"
Question 94. What do you learn from this commandment?
No loyalty comes before my loyalty to God. I should worship and serve only God, expect all good from God alone, and love, fear and honor God with all my heart.
Matt. 6:24 "No one can serve two masters; for a slave will either hate the one and love the other, or be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and wealth."
Deut. 6:5 "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your might."
Prov. 9:10 "The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom, and the knowledge of the Holy One is insight."
Matt. 10:37 "Whoever loves father or mother more than me is not worthy of me; and whoever loves son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me."
Question 95. What is the second commandment?
"You shall not make for yourself an idol" (Ex. 20:4; Deut. 5:8).
Question 96. What do you learn from this commandment?
First, when I treat anything other than God as though it were God, I practice idolatry. Second, when I assume that my own interests are more important than anything else, I make them into idols, and in effect make an idol of myself.
Deut. 6:14 "Do not follow other gods, any of the gods of the peoples who are all around you."
1 John 5:21 "Little children, keep yourselves from idols."
Ex. 34:14 "For you shall worship no other god, because the Lord, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God."
1 Chron. 16:26 "For all the gods of the peoples are idols, but the Lord made the heavens."
Rom. 1:22-23 "Claiming to be wise, they became fools; and they exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images resembling a mortal human being or birds or four-footed animals or reptiles."
Phil. 2:4 "Let each of you look not to your own interests, but to the interests of others."
Question 97. What is the third commandment?
"You shall not make wrongful use of the name of the Lord your God" (Ex. 20:7; Deut. 5:11).
Question 98. What do you learn from this commandment?
I should use God's name with reverence and awe. God's name is taken in vain when used to support wrong. It is insulted when used carelessly, as in a curse or a pious cliché.
Ps. 29:2 "Ascribe to the Lord the glory of his name; worship the Lord in holy splendor."
Rev. 15:3-4 "Great and amazing are your deeds, Lord God the Almighty! Just and true are your ways, King of the nations! Lord, who will not fear and glorify your name?"
Ps. 138:2 "I bow down toward your holy temple and give thanks to your name for your steadfast love and your faithfulness; for you have exalted your name and your word above everything."
Eph. 4:29 "Let no evil talk come out of your mouths, but only what is useful for building up, as there is need, so that your words may give grace to those who hear."
Ps. 103:1-2 "Bless the Lord, O my soul, and all that is within me, bless his holy name. Bless the Lord, O my soul, and do not forget all his benefits."
Question 99. What is the fourth commandment?
"Remember the Sabbath Day, and keep it holy" (Ex. 20:8; Deut. 5:12).
Question 100. What do you learn from this commandment?
God requires a special day to be set apart so that worship can be at the center of my life. It is right to honor God with thanks and praise, and to hear and receive God's Word, so that I may have it in my heart, and on my lips, and put it into practice in my life.
Rom. 10:8 "But what does it say? "The word is near you, on your lips and in your heart."
Deut. 5:12 "Observe the sabbath day and keep it holy, as the Lord your God commanded you."
Gen. 2:3 "So God blessed the seventh day and hallowed it, because on it God rested from all the work that he had done in creation."
Lev. 23:3 "Six days shall work be done; but the seventh day is a sabbath of complete rest, a holy convocation; you shall do no work: it is a sabbath to the Lord throughout your settlements."
Acts 2:42,46 "They devoted themselves to the apostles' teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayers. Day by day, as they spent much time together in the temple, they broke bread at home and ate their food with glad and generous hearts."
Question 101. Why set aside one day a week as a day of rest?
First, working people should not be taken advantage of by their employers (Deut. 5:14). My job should not be my tyrant, for my life is more than my work. Second, God requires me to put time aside for the regular study of Holy Scripture and for prayer, not only by myself but also with others, not least those in my own household.
Deut. 5:14 "But the seventh day is a sabbath to the Lord your God; you shall not do any work--you, or your son or your daughter, or your male or female slave, or your ox or your donkey, or any of your livestock, or the resident alien in your towns, so that your male and female slave may rest as well as you."
Ex. 31:17 "It is a sign forever between me and the people of Israel that in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed."
Question 102. Why do we Christians usually gather on the first day of the week?
In worshipping together on the first day of the week, we celebrate our Lord's resurrection, so that the new life Christ brought us might begin to fill our whole lives.
Mark 16:2 "And very early on the first day of the week, when the sun had risen, they went to the tomb."
Acts 20:7 "On the first day of the week, when we met to break bread, Paul was holding a discussion with them; since he intended to leave the next day, he continued speaking until midnight."
Acts 4:33 "With great power the apostles gave their testimony to the resurrection of the Lord Jesus, and great grace was upon them all."
Question 103. What is the best summary of the first four commandments?
These teach me how to live rightly with God. Jesus summed them up with the commandment he called the first and greatest: "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind" (Matt. 22:37; Deut. 6:5).
Question 104. What is the fifth commandment?
"Honor your father and your mother" (Ex. 20:12; Deut. 5:16).
Question 105. What do you learn from this commandment?
Though I owe reverence to God alone, I owe genuine respect to my parents, both my mother and father. God wills me to listen to them, be thankful for the benefits I receive from them, and be considerate of their needs, especially in old age.
Eph. 5:21 "Be subject to one another out of reverence for Christ."
Rom. 12:10 "Love one another with mutual affection; outdo one another in showing honor."
Eph. 6:2 "Honor your father and mother--this is the first commandment with a promise."
Prov. 1:8 "Hear, my child, your father's instruction, and do not reject your mother's teaching."
Lev. 19:32 "You shall rise before the aged, and defer to the old; and you shall fear your God: I am the Lord."
Luke 2:51 "Then [Jesus] went down with them and came to Nazareth, and was obedient to them. His mother treasured all these things in her heart."
Question 106. Are there limits to your obligation to obey them?
Yes. No mere human being is God. Blind obedience is not required, for everything should be tested by loyalty and obedience to God. When it seems as though I should not obey, I should always be alert to possible self-deception on my part, and should pray that we may all walk in the truth of God's will.
1 Pet. 2:17 "Honor everyone. Love the family of believers. Fear God. Honor the emperor."
Acts 5:29 "Peter and the apostles answered, 'We must obey God rather than any human authority.'"
Question 107. What is the sixth commandment?
"You shall not murder" (Ex. 20:13; Deut. 5:17).
Question 108. What do you learn from this commandment?
God forbids anything that harms my neighbor unfairly. Murder or injury can be done not only by direct violence but also by an angry word or a clever plan, and not only by an individual but also by unjust social institutions. I should honor every human being, including my enemy, as a person made in God's image.
1 John 3:15 "All who hate a brother or sister are murderers, and you know that murderers do not have eternal life abiding in them."
Prov. 24:17 "Do not rejoice when your enemies fall, and do not let your heart be glad when they stumble."
Rom. 12:19-20 "Beloved, never avenge yourselves, but leave room for the wrath of God; for it is written, 'Vengeance is mine, I will repay, says the Lord.' No, 'if your enemies are hungry, feed them; if they are thirsty, give them something to drink; for by doing this you will heap burning coals on their heads.'"
Col. 3:12-13 "As God's chosen ones, holy and beloved, clothe yourselves with compassion, kindness, humility, meekness, and patience. Bear with one another and, if anyone has a complaint against another, forgive each other; just as the Lord has forgiven you, so you also must forgive."
Matt. 5:21-22 "You have heard that it was said to those of ancient times, 'You shall not murder'; and 'whoever murders shall be liable to judgment.' But I say to you that if you are angry with a brother or sister, you will be liable to judgment; and if you insult a brother or sister, you will be liable to the council; and if you say, 'You fool,' you will be liable to the hell of fire."
Matt. 26:52 "Then Jesus said to him, 'Put your sword back into its place; for all who take the sword will perish by the sword.'"
Question 109. What is the seventh commandment?
"You shall not commit adultery" (Ex. 20:14; Deut. 5:18).
Question 110. What do you learn from this commandment?
God requires fidelity and purity in sexual relations. Since love is God's great gift, God expects me not to corrupt it, or confuse it with momentary desire or the selfish fulfillment of my own pleasures. God forbids all sexual immorality, whether in married or in single life.
Eph. 5:3 "But fornication and impurity of any kind, or greed, must not even be mentioned among you, as is proper among saints."
Matt. 5:27-29 "You have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery.' But I say to you that everyone who looks at a woman with lust has already committed adultery with her in his heart. If your right eye causes you to sin, tear it out and throw it away; it is better for you to lose one of your members than for your whole body to be thrown into hell."
Heb. 13:4 "Let marriage be held in honor by all, and let the marriage bed be kept undefiled; for God will judge fornicators and adulterers."
1 Thess. 4:3-4 "For this is the will of God, your sanctification: that you abstain from fornication; that each one of you know how to control your own body in holiness and honor."
Question 111. What is the eighth commandment?
"You shall not steal" (Ex. 20:15; Deut. 5:19).
Question 112. What do you learn from this commandment?
God forbids all theft and robbery, including schemes, tricks or systems that unjustly take what belongs to someone else. God requires me not to be driven by greed, not to misuse or waste the gifts I have been given, and not to distrust the promise that God will supply my needs.
Job 20:19-20 "For they have crushed and abandoned the poor, they have seized a house that they did not build. They knew no quiet in their bellies; in their greed they let nothing escape."
Jer. 22:13 "Woe to him who builds his house by unrighteousness, and his upper rooms by injustice; who makes his neighbors work for nothing, and does not give them their wages."
Prov. 18.9 "One who is slack in work is close kin to a vandal."
1 Tim. 6:9-10 "But those who want to be rich fall into temptation and are trapped by many senseless and harmful desires that plunge people into ruin and destruction."
1 John 3:17 "How does God's love abide in anyone who has the world's goods and sees a brother or sister in need and yet refuses help?"
Luke 12:15 "And he said to them, 'Take care! Be on your guard against all kinds of greed; for one's life does not consist in the abundance of possessions.'"
Phil. 4:19 "And my God will fully satisfy every need of yours according to his riches in glory in Christ Jesus."
Question 113. What is the ninth commandment?
"You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor" (Ex. 20:16; Deut. 5:20).
Question 114. What do you learn from this commandment?
God forbids me to damage the honor or reputation of my neighbor. I should not say false things against anyone for the sake of money, favor or friendship, for the sake of revenge, or for any other reason. God requires me to speak the truth, to speak well of my neighbor when I can, and to view the faults of my neighbor with tolerance when I cannot.
Zech. 8:16-17 "These are the things that you shall do: Speak the truth to one another, render in your gates judgments that are true and make for peace, do not devise evil in your hearts against one another, and love no false oath; for all these are things that I hate, says the Lord."
1 Pet. 3:16 "Yet do it with gentleness and reverence. Keep your conscience clear, so that, when you are maligned, those who abuse you for your good conduct in Christ may be put to shame."
Prov. 14:5 "A faithful witness does not lie, but a false witness breathes out lies."
James 4:11 "Do not speak evil against one another, brothers and sisters. Whoever speaks evil against another or judges another, speaks evil against the law and judges the law; but if you judge the law, you are not a doer of the law but a judge."
1 Pet. 4:8 "Above all, maintain constant love for one another, for love covers a multitude of sins."
Question 115. Does this commandment forbid racism and other forms of negative stereotyping?
Yes. In forbidding false witness against my neighbor, God forbids me to be prejudiced against people who belong to any vulnerable, different or disfavored social group. Jews, women, homosexuals, racial and ethnic minorities, and national enemies are among those who have suffered terribly from being subjected to the slurs of social prejudice. Negative stereotyping is a form of falsehood that invites actions of humiliation, abuse, and violence as forbidden by the commandment against murder.
Rom. 3:13, 15 "Their throats are opened graves; they use their tongues to deceive. The venom of vipers is under their lips. . . . Their feet are swift to shed blood."
Prov. 31:8-9 "Speak out for those who cannot speak, for the rights of all the destitute. Speak out, judge righteously, defend the rights of the poor and needy."
Matt. 7:1-2 "Do not judge, so that you may not be judged. For with the judgment you make you will be judged, and the measure you give will be the measure you get."
Question 116. What is the tenth commandment?
"You shall not covet what is your neighbor's" (Ex. 20:17; Deut. 5:21).
Question 117. What do you learn from this commandment?
My whole heart should belong to God alone, not to money or the things of this world. "Coveting" means desiring something wrongfully. I should not resent the good fortune or success of my neighbor or allow envy to corrupt my heart.
Heb. 13:5 "Keep your lives free from the love of money, and be content with what you have; for he has said, 'I will never leave you or forsake you.'"
Gal. 5:26 "Let us not become conceited, competing against one another, envying one another."
Question 118. What is the best summary of the last six commandments?
These teach me how to live rightly with my neighbor. Jesus summed them up with the commandment which is like the greatest one about loving God: "You shall love your neighbor as yourself" (Matt. 22:39; Lev. 19:18).
Question 119. Can you obey these commandments perfectly?
No. I am at once a forgiven sinner and a forgiven sinner. As a sinner without excuse, I fail to obey these commandments as God requires. "For whoever keeps the whole law but fails in one point has become accountable for all of it" (James 2:10). I should not adjust the law to my failures, nor reduce my failures before God. Yet there is more grace in God than sin in me. While I should not cease to pray to God for mercy, I can be confident that God is forgiving and that I will be set free from all my sins. By grace I can confess my sins, repent of them, and grow in love and knowledge day by day.
Ps. 14:3 "They have all gone astray, they are all alike perverse; there is no one who does good, no, not one."
Eph. 2:8 "For by grace you have been saved through faith, and this is not your own doing; it is the gift of God."
Ps. 130:3-4 "If you, O Lord, should mark iniquities, Lord, who could stand? But there is forgiveness with you, so that you may be revered."
Col. 1:13-14 "He has rescued us from the power of darkness and transferred us into the kingdom of his beloved Son, in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins."
1 John 1:8 "If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us."
approved by the 210th (1998) General Assembly of the PCUSA
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